In 2005, Jessica Prentice coined the word locavore, which was voted the 2007 “Word of the Year” by Oxford University Press. Locavore was coined to describe and promote the practice of eating a diet consisting of food harvested from within an area bounded by a one-hundred-mile radius. Prentice was the director of education at the Ferry Plaza Farmers Market in San Francisco at the time and wanted to encourage food lovers to enjoy what they eat while still appreciating the impact they have on the environment.

Locavorism projects positive considerations: (1) the traditional pleasures of eating real, fresh foods grown and prepared in the context of community, (2) reducing the distance that food is transported using fossil fuels, which now on average is 1,500 miles from farm to table, (3) providing an alternative to factory farms that exploit workers and the Earth, abuse animals, and contribute to a society in which factory-processed foods have become staples, creating a population that is simultaneously overfed and undernourished, and (4) creating strong local food systems that support environmental sustainability, food security, social equity, and the economic vitality of thriving communities.

No Place More Local Than Your Own Backyard

If you join the many Americans who turned to food gardening after the 2009 economic recessionary year and grow your own food, you would control the soil composition and the pesticide load and insure that the produce was handled with clean hands. There is no place more local than your own backyard. Your produce is as fresh and nutritionally dense as it can be, if used shortly after harvesting.

With the National Organic Program (NOP) defining the requirements for organic production, multinational corporations have changed their production methods to conform to the definition, but still end up shipping the produce many, many miles to reach your fork. By shopping for local produce, the carbon footprint of organic produce procurement can be reduced.

Since most of us living in America are living in a temperate climate, another technique to insure wholesome organic produce year round will require systems of food preservation. Most county extension services have bulletins that can be downloaded that describe methodologies for canning, freezing, and other preservation.

In spite of the fact that fresh whole fruits and vegetables usually deliver the most nutrients per serving, during the winter months when only imported, conventional, fresh produce is available, consumers should consider choosing canned or frozen domestically grown fruits and vegetables. Processed apples, grapes, peaches, pears, green beans, peas, and tomatoes have a substantially reduced pesticide load compared with fresh, imported, conventional, nonorganic produce.

Some Other Major 
Food Groups

There are also organic guidelines for the production of poultry, eggs, pork, and beef products. Included is the humane treatment of animals in settings where the animals have room to exercise with access to outdoor space and where health is maintained on diets that do not rely on antibiotics for survival. Organic feedstocks must be used.

In the past ten years, a number of books have been written that evaluate segments of the American food production systems and focus increasingly on the care of the animals that provide our meat. There have also been two documentaries released that focus on the food system that clarify the problems and make suggestions for improvements. [Food, Inc.Fresh: New Thinking About What We're Eating.]

The industrialization of meat production has introduced confined animal feeding operations that have provided inexpensive meat in vast quantities. This efficiency in efforts to feed a vast nation with low-cost food is not without environmental costs and concerns about the healthfulness of the products generated.

Antibiotics and E. Coli

Cattle and corn are transported many miles to established confined animal feeding operations for the final “finishing.” During this period when the cattle are readied for slaughter, the predominant diet of corn gives the meat the marbling texture that tenderizes and flavors the meat with fat deposits between the muscle fibers. But bovines are designed by nature to forage grasses and can only survive a concentrated corn or grain diet with the supplementation of low levels of antibiotics. This creates a major public health concern, because bacteria (primarily E。大肠杆菌)暴露于连续的,低级的抗生素可成为抗性,并且可以通过在屠宰过程与粪便物接触污染肉制品。

美国医学协会,美国公共卫生协会,卫生所有的国家机构描述抗生素耐药性作为一个日益严重的公共卫生问题。 在阻力的减少已报道在已经禁止在动物生产中使用抗生素的欧洲国家。 在美国使用的所有抗菌药物的百分之七十是喂养牲畜。 这涉及到每年25万英镑的抗生素,八倍以上用于人类治疗疾病的金额。


此外,FDA和USDA的批准,提高了屠宰所有美国牛三分之二的注射生长荷尔蒙。 欧洲人禁止生长激素牛肉在1988。 欧盟委员会任命了一个委员会来研究从激素增强牛和1999食用肉的人的影响,报告说,在肉残基注射的动物可能会影响人体的荷尔蒙平衡,引起生殖问题和乳腺癌,前列腺癌,或结肠癌。

在大群的美国和22%的所有奶牛的大约百分之54使用重组牛生长激素(rBGH的)来获得牛奶的产量增长百分之8-17。 它的使用由25%提高细菌感染乳房奶牛,因此需要使用抗生素治疗感染。 奶牛与rBGH的喷射出的乳具有较高水平的另一个称为胰岛素样生长因子1激素,其在人类中是与结肠和乳腺癌。

法规禁止使用在猪和家禽的激素,但抗生素常规使用。 猪和鸡的紧约束鼓励使用抗生素预防低的水平,以促进生长,以确保卫生,并尽量减少传染病的拥挤鸡和猪的种群内的传播。 这个永久使用抗生素可影响不仅蛋和肉的消费者,但动物照顾者也更可能获得多药耐药 大肠杆菌。

有机畜产品生产不允许使用生长激素或预防性使用抗生素的。 从有机农场,特别是基于牧场经营,奶牛牛奶中含有显著更高水平的共轭亚油酸(胶质液泡)。 在有机牛奶这些水平往往高于或低于在常规牛奶更30%,但此CLA优点是通过一年中的时间,牧场的质量,生产的水平,和畜群健康和管理调制。 胶质液泡对人类健康的好处包括减少的倾向储存脂肪(尤其是腹部脂肪),抑制肿瘤发展,促进胰岛素的细胞敏感性,提高对病毒抗原的免疫应答,并调节炎症过程。

有机牛肉的农民在牧场和饲草的依赖增加了肉类CLA级为好。 肉是铁和B族维生素的良好食物来源12; 另外,肉,蛋,和从放牧动物奶也含有较高水平的ω-3必需脂肪酸是人类神经系统的健康是必不可少的。


现在,我们知道可用的食品的状态,有机会,尽量我们所消耗的食物的质量。 通过仔细的选择和购买精明,食物的质量得以提高。

也有一些家庭成为参与了,或者参加一个社区花园项目在天井的花盆种植蔬菜,一些草坪空间转换成季节性园生产健康的蔬菜的机会。 另一种选择是找到谁搞有机农业,可以为您提供这些食品的驾驶范围内的农民。

让我们从一个前往当地的杂货店开始。 这是美妙的看到许多大型杂货店现在提供有机农产品。 但选择购买有机与传统的蔬菜和水果包括考虑成本和效益的许多家庭。 环境工作组采用了美国农业部的PDP数据2000 2007来评选产生污染使用的六项措施。 该排名是根据与在最高级别的最大的农药被一致污染的可能性。 使用排名中,购物者的指导农药建议。 这份名单每年更新一次。


其中十二个污染最严重的(肮脏的十)七水果(桃子,苹果,油桃,草莓,樱桃,葡萄进口,和梨)和五种蔬菜(甜青椒,芹菜,芥兰,生菜,胡萝卜)。 这项研究表明,由至少污染的水果和蔬菜的清单取代农产品买家可以通过80%的减少农药的消费。


这项研究还表明,购买十二金刚有机地将消除大多数农药残留。 采购十六至少产生污染的项目有机地将减少农药负载只是最低限度。

对于最多和最少的污染,有机或常规的选择之间列出的农产品将是一个成本与效益的考虑。 选择的情况将是所有的产品常年有机选择的可用性。


越来越多的家庭正在寻找的季节性农产品和肉类替代来源。 没有产生新鲜和营养密集,因为这其中从有机厨房花园收获和收获后几分钟内消耗。 二战期间,以家庭为基础的“胜利花园”,这是由第一夫人埃莉诺·罗斯福倡导,产生了美国人消费的农产品40个百分点。

但当地种植的新鲜农产品也可以在当地农贸市场采购。 您可以找到您的区域中的一个 www.localharvest.org or www.eatwellguide.com。 还列出了家庭农场和可持续种植的农产品和青草喂养的肉类其他来源。

机会也存在由罐头,冷冻,干燥,或当地农产品的保鲜等方法来保存,当它在季节延长黄金的可用性,营养密集生产常年消费。 当地的食物会比新鲜的鲜活农产品运输千里,即使是在其原籍国的有机蔬菜。

There is an ever-increasing awareness of the ethics of food. Gardens, particularly organic gardens, can remind us that our relationship to our planet can be sustainable. As long as the sun shines and people plant seeds we can find ways to provide for our nutritional needs without adversely impacting the world.

©由芬利Eversole 2013。 保留所有权利。


This article was adapted from 章节 9 本书内容:




Melvin D. EppMelvin D. Epp was a research scientist working on botanical and production problems. He is retired and owns the ancestral farm his great-grandfather purchased from the Santa Fe Railroad in 1876. Melvin continues to garden where his grandmother began gardening in 1893. He holds degrees from Wheaton College - B.S. in biology; University of Connecticut - M.S. in botany; and Cornell University - Ph.D. in genetics. He continues to guide the Wichita Organic Garden Club and the Frederic Remington Area Historical Society and is an Extension Master Gardener of Sedgwick County, Kansas. Melvin has published a book featuring his mother's poetry: The Petals of a Kansas Sunflower: A Mennonite Diaspora


芬利Eversole博士芬利Eversole,博士,是一个哲学家,教育家,活动家和艺术的意识进化中的作用倡导者。 在1960s他在民权和妇女运动活跃,参加了在纽约市举办1970第一个地球日。 他曾策划和编辑5 即将卷 解决一系列全球性问题的解决方案; 无限医学技术 是一本书在系列。