在过去的十年中，社会学的研究结果都力求展现女孩的欺凌采取的形式 关系攻击 - 口头和情感虐待 - 而不是男生中发现的物理攻击。
在女性 （1851），德国哲学家叔本华，宣称男性陌生人或熟人之间的感觉是“纯粹的冷漠”; 对女性来说是“实际敌意”。
同样，一神论部长，作家威廉Rounseville阿尔及尔，在 女人的友谊 （1868），得出结论：
正如十九世纪的犯罪人类学家 切萨雷龙勃罗梭 argued in Criminal Woman, the Prostitute and the Normal Woman （1893）：
Due to women’s latent antipathy for one another, trivial events give rise to fierce hatreds; and due to women’s irascibility, these occasions lead quickly to insolence and assaults. […] Women of high social station do the same thing, but their more refined forms of insult do not lead to law courts.
Australia inherited this western cultural tradition of demonising relationships between women. It is no wonder that Australian historian Nick Dyrenfurth found mateship to have been a “steadfastly male” institution in his recent 历史 关于这个问题的。
A Biological Imperative?
For many past and the present commentators, the main reason women supposedly lack sorority is thought to be sexual jealousy.
It is alleged this could even be 生物 - a drive left over from a period when securing male support was necessary to female survival.
Indeed, Lombroso was one of the first to espouse this Darwinian view of female relations. He claimed that competition for “resources” led to an instinctive hatred of their own sex among both animal and human females.
While such contentions remain unproven, they have proved influential.
In the nineteenth century, such sentiments made women scapegoats for their own suffering. Prostitution was blamed not on capitalism, but on the vindictiveness of those already in the trade. Victorian sex workers reputedly sought to “drag down” other women to their level.
There was “the feeling” among prostitutes of “the fox who has lost his tail and wants to get all the other foxes to have their tails cut off too”, suffragist Agnes Maude Royden suggested in her 1916 book Downward Paths.
Conversely, “respectable” women were accused of enforcing the moral standards that prevented the rehabilitation of “fallen women”. For nineteenth-century Melbournian journalist “流浪者” John Stanley James, it was “woman alone” - never man - that cast “stones at her erring sister”.
This perspective continues in society today. According to commentators like Samantha Brick, it is women, not men, who objectify, belittle and sabotage attractive women, especially those who have embraced their sexuality.
Women may have been freed from their reliance on a male provider during the twentieth century, but this is not said to have lessened female rivalry. Rather, this phenomenon is seen to have simply moved into the 专业领域.
Many believe female bosses are tougher on women employees, reluctant to help others shatter the glass ceiling for fear of losing their own privileged position.
一个2011 psychological study concluded that accusations of “Queen Bee” behaviour usually resulted from women being held to different professional standards. Competitiveness and authoritarianism, researchers found, were perceived negatively when displayed by women, but not men.
Again, such perceptions are nothing new.
In the illicit economy of the nineteenth century, brothel-keepers were described as jealously guarding the more privileged position they held over the ordinary prostitute. Madams were said to cheat other women out of their wages with a sense of schadenfreude.
There were similar allegations of female exploitation in the legitimate economy. Social reformer Helen Campbell, in Prisoners of Poverty (1900), an investigation of American female factory workers, declared:
Female industrial supervisors are not only as filled with greed and as tricky and uncertain in their methods as the worst class of male employers, but even more ingenious in specific modes of imposition.
The Myth Continues
Whether in their professional or personal lives, it is true that women do not always treat other women well. But the same can be said for men.
We could just as easily find evidence that all men hate each other - for example, by pointing out that the majority of violent crime is by men against other men.
Yet centuries of being told women are each others worst enemies has resulted in 确认偏误. We are programmed to identify evidence that supports the pre-existing hypothesis.
And when stories of female rivalry grace our screens - for example, between mothers in The Hand that Rocks the Cradle (1992), the four-girl clique in 漂亮的小骗子 (2010-present) and rival crime queens in Underbelly: Razor (2011) - these narratives are simply more titillating than the prosaic reality of male violence.
A preoccupation with girl-on-girl “crime” not only distracts from the greater problems women face, such as the violence committed against them by men, but to some extent validates the women-as-lesser attitudes that contribute to such crimes.
Cultural critic H.L. Mencken once defined a misogynist as a man who hates women as much as women hate one another. Glibly suggesting that all women hate each other gives tacit permission for men to hate women too.
Alana Piper, Research Fellow, Griffith Criminology Institute, Griffith University. She has a broad range of interests involving Australia’s social and cultural history, particularly pertaining to issues of social order and control, the media, and gender, class and racial identity.