是上帝和宗教结合基要主义的邪恶三位一体?

是上帝和宗教结合基要主义的邪恶三位一体?

很多争论 为上帝的存在 - 安瑟伦 本体论的争论中, 宇宙论论证中, 目的论的说法中, 道德论证 和“直接经验上帝”的说法。 但是,如果你不已经相信,这些参数都不会说服你。 他们是事后结构来支撑现有的信念。

该反驳说,宗教是一个糟糕的,但根深蒂固的想法。 兜售宗教教义丑有丑的后果。 这些所谓的“圣书”各种要求“巫师”的执行,支持奴隶制,赞同异教徒和异端的大屠杀,战争的发动,谴责同性恋和女诋毁。

宗教 促进师 和不平等。 他们在小组(“选民”)和出团。

进入弗洛伊德

精神分析学之父弗洛伊德, 说: 宗教是由群众共享,托文明集体神经官能症。 宗教都有其幼稚的无能和一个坚强的父亲的渴望根源。 神经症和宗教 普遍的共同根源 在人性和认知。

弗洛伊德 相信 ,有在历史的过程中发展进步 - 从万物有灵和神奇,宗教,再到科学的解释 - 在人们感知和解释宇宙的方式。

每个解释逐渐变少无所不能,以自我为中心。 它与我们是凡人,有限的,在浩瀚的宇宙小,无奈对自然力量的科学观点结束。

进入原教旨主义

谁落在猎物原教旨主义的消息? 我已经开发了一种算法:

原教旨主义=恐惧+一厢情愿+创造心理脆弱,愤怒,仇恨,嫉妒,异化和边缘化+认知收窄(例如,灌输)社会和政治力量。

其结果是,被剥夺权利,四面楚歌,诋毁和拒绝,剥夺乏,创伤,无依无靠,社会的嫉妒,仇恨和rageful成员都是原教旨主义宗教和政治宗教意识形态的消息都公平的游戏。

一个原教旨主义团体的成员逆转这些难耐的感觉。 原教旨主义意识形态的支持了集团的自信。 原教旨主义原来团成团的授权和丰富其成员。 他们现在不再诋毁和孤独,但捧得作为选择和寥寥。

原教旨主义者变得与在古代经文的天真和字面上的解释发现得救的简单信息的战士。 迷恋是绝望和生活的不确定性。 路径是直的; 目标是明确的。 但是,要参加,就必须放弃一个人的“自我” - 一个人的个性和“心” - 为了使盲从集体意识形态。

原教旨主义的恐怖主义行为必须违反一个几乎不可逾越的障碍 - 对生命的回吐禁令。 然而,这些高度已缩小,并在历史的长河中反复破坏。

除了像社会经济不平等,种族斗争和民族主义运动,犯下暴行的潜在动机 需要 原教旨主义者经历了他们的目标“讽刺,侮辱和毫无尊严的一个长期的过程”,以创造自己(在组)和其预期的受害者(外群体)之间的裂痕。

敌人不再是人类同胞。 他们成了异教徒。

Religion And Suicide Bombing

Suicide bombing, like genocide, is characterised by the perceived need for purification. The term “ethnic cleansing” carries this meaning, as did former al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden’s call for a return to the values of the Islamic ancestors, to cleanse mankind of the West’s impure and corrupted values.

Those who must be cleansed are necessarily impure and indeed evil. The cause – to rid the world of this contamination – is sacred and sanctioned by God.

Suicide bombing is more prevalent in occupied nations, in which the occupied resist, yet succumb to the constant humiliations as a result of their abject subjugation.

Repeated humiliations spawn impotent rage, frustration and despair that demand expression. For some, it signals a wish to be dead rather than endure further humiliation. Suicide bombing disables the military might of the occupier. It is the ultimate defiance of the oppressor.

The profiles of suicide bombers are disparate. Some are recruited from among the homeless and poverty-stricken. Others are recruited by imams, at mosques and by social media; and from among the affluent and well-educated who live abroad. Some are young boys brainwashed in the madrassahs, or widows and bereaved sisters of deceased jihadists who wish to expel their rage and grief about their loss in retaliation against a hated enemy.

On Deradicalisation

Deprogramming a bomb or a missile is possible, but can you deprogram a terrorist? Radicalisation into fundamentalist violence follows four stages – pre-radicalisation, self-identification, indoctrination and action.

Deradicalisation, the process of persuading extremists to abandon the use of violence, is not simply a reversal of the radicalisation process. Careful assessment of individuals to identify the unique set of context- and person- specific factors motivating their involvement is essential.

Many countries – such as Singapore, Indonesia, the UK and the Netherlands – have implemented deradicalisation programs with varying degrees of success. The Indonesian prison deradicalisation program has been a 失败: of 600 undertaking the program, only 20 deradicalised.

But, the Palestinian Liberation Organisation’s (PLO) feared military wing, the Black September Organisation, thought that radicalised members only “switched off” when the PLO gave them a:

… reason to live, rather than a reason to die.

The solution? They married them off.

关于作者

theadora diannaDianna Theadora Kenny is Professor of Psychology and Music at University of Sydney. She was the founding director of the Australian Centre for Applied Research in Music Performance, at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney. She is the author of over 200 publications, and seven books, including: -Young Offenders on Community Orders: Health, Welfare and Criminogenic Needs (Sydney University Press, 2008) (with Paul Nelson), -The Psychology of Music Performance Anxiety (Oxford University Press, 2011), -Bringing up Baby: The Psychoanalytic Infant Comes of Age (Karnac, 2013), -From Id to Intersubjectivity:Talking about the Talking Cure with Master Clinicians (Karnac, 2014) and -God, Freud and Religion: The Origin of Fear, Faith and Fundamentalism (Routledge, 2015).

本文最初发表于 谈话。 阅读 原创文章.