耶稣会随着科学的传教士为天主教教会

 耶稣会随着科学的传教士为天主教教会

天主教,耶稣会和科学家走进一间酒吧。 他们是怎么得说说? 而就怎么做这些谈话去了?

这个场景可不是开玩笑的事。 因为耶稣会,近500年前成立的冲突以及合作有特点这三方之间的历史关系。 如何这三个相互作用今天在做的时代“战争科学“趋于政治化这么多的科学问题?

与罗马天主教会的掌舵人是谁在一旦第一个耶稣会士担任此职,科学的人教皇(因为许多 评论员都强调)以及世界如何的声音 1.2十亿天主教徒 应该思考科学问题,在他们的宗教承诺来看,这是值得研究的科学和天主教过去和未来的潜力通过耶稣会士的镜头。

耶稣会迅速远播

从一开始,耶稣会的成员是男性的使命。 在以后会收到1540教皇批准的关键年,人们早期耶稣会士,赫罗尼莫纳达尔,写信给他的confreres的房子,他们住包括“征途”本身,其中“整个世界变成我们的房子。“与通过稳定的誓言绑定到特定寺院僧侣,耶稣会士承诺走在世界为他们部委的缘故。

特派团的主要耶稣部无论是在天主教的中心地带及以后基督教的历史边界。 耶稣会企业的历史和全球层面可以通过他们的数字来衡量 - 已经近1,000 神父,兄弟和新手分布在意大利,西班牙,法国,德国,葡萄牙,巴西,埃塞俄比亚,印度和日本在洛约拉的一生学会创始人依纳爵。 即使在20th世纪的过程中显著下降,但仍是男性最大的单一天主教秩序,有超过 17,000 成员 全世界 在2013。

科学的一部分耶稣会士团从一开始

他们的旅程成为世界主导早期耶稣会承担学校和学院为他们的事工的一部分。 当社会1773被压制,有些700教育机构的监督之下。 耶稣会仍然 活跃​​在教育 today, with 28 colleges and universities in the United States alone. And Jesuit missions and schools together have long provided an institutional framework housing both science education and research.

Science emerged as a particular 机会 for the expanding Society’s ministries. Mathematical sciences and natural philosophy – and the modern scientific disciplines that emerged from them – were vital for the Jesuits to successfully 竞争 in the educational marketplace. They often set themselves apart by offering more thorough science instruction than other institutions.

An early example of Jesuit science was Christoph Clavius (1538-1612), who taught and researched at the Jesuit college in Rome for some 40 years. He wrote treatises on arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, astronomy, instrumentation and calendrics that traveled widely throughout the Jesuit network of schools and missions.

When some of Clavius' students went to China, they drew heavily on his writings to publish on scientific topics in Chinese。 他们的 继任者 likewise made use of Jesuit scientific resources to meet the interests of their Chinese auditors.

Seeking audiences with scientific interests, whether in or out of the classroom, often meant showing that Jesuits were keeping up with the latest developments. The frontispiece to Jesuit Giovanni Battista Riccioli’s New Almagest (1651), for example, made clear the rapid development of astronomy in recent decades. The telescope Argos holds to his knee points toward the phases of Venus and Mercury, Jupiter’s satellites, the moon’s cratered surface and Saturn’s bulging “arms.” And Riccioli examined 126 arguments that could be made about Copernicus' sun-centered system: 49 for, 77 against.

An overarching institutional commitment to science is visible in the globe-spanning networks of seismological stations74 observatories the Society of Jesus operated following its restoration in 1814. It continues to provide qualified personnel for the Vatican Observatory, staffing both its 罗马以外的设施 以及 梵蒂冈先进技术望远镜,山格雷厄姆国际天文台在亚利桑那州东南部的后半部分。

耶稣会科学有时超前于天主教主流

显然,耶稣会士脱颖而出天主教徒在这样一个世界中,其中的信仰和科学的依据似乎往往是相互冲突的。 当然,我们早已过的试金石 伽利略事件,它集中了地球为中心的托勒密和我们太阳系的太阳为中心的哥白尼观点之间的冲突。

但在科学工作的耶稣会的投资并不总是庆祝。 皇家天文学局的耶稣会董事在北京的17th和18th世纪 面对严厉批评 从新教徒,他们的教友,甚至他们为了什么许多人认为与他们的使徒的职责和精神品格不符的作用confreres。

就在这一年,两名耶稣会的科学家乔治 - 科伊尔,梵蒂冈天文台名誉主任,和奥古斯丁Udías,地球物理学名誉教授 - 争论 该“耶稣会科学传统”是一个和“科学研究领域的”本身“在天主教教会牧灵特”,“使命的领土。”

这种说法还需要进行告诉。 但是,等得就是方济各“近期MIT-和亚利桑那州的训练底特律人的任命 盖伊Consolmagno作为梵蒂冈天文台主任在耶稣会士的一长排的最新补差价。

去年Consolmagno收到的卡尔·萨根纪念奖由美国天文学会,公众理解科学对于给定的 他的工作 作为一个“行星科学和天文学的并列与基督教信仰,理性的代言人谁也格外传达以及如何声音 宗教和科学是可以共存 信徒。“他甚至 充满斯蒂芬科尔伯特 在关于外星生命梵蒂冈位置。

方济各,对他而言,把Consolmagno的梵蒂冈天文台任命宣布的另一个场合,以进一步督促 宗教和科学之间的对话.

应该如何打好天主教徒进场科技今天?

这是很难预测方济各的背景与领导可能会如何影响当代科学问题天主教会的立场。 但是,在一个主要2013 访问他强调Ignatian法眼 - 感知如何“大原则必须在地点,时间和人员的情况下体现”病人过程 - 为根本,以“真实,有效的改变。”

这说明与熊耶稣会物理学家蒂莫西Toohig在帮助建立怎样想到他的工作比较 费米实验室 在伊利诺伊州,该 超导超级对撞机 in Texas (for which he led a public prayer when the House of Representatives voted again to cancel its funding), and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland.

Toohig addressed both 科学家 和他的 fellow Jesuits on how physics research was akin to the search for God. For Toohig, “honesty” in “confronting data, even when they might contradict my previous experience and expectations” and in recognizing “the tentative quality of both our knowledge and our ignorance” was critical to “Ignatian discernment,” the process through which discoveries – scientific as well as spiritual – are made.

The same seems to be the case for this pope, for whom “the Jesuit always thinks, again and again, looking at the horizon toward which he must go, with Christ at the center.” Keeping that horizon in sight while paying close attention to current scientific research and its implications led to this year’s environmental encyclical “Laudato硅.” The papal letter cites not only the “Canticle of the Creatures” by Saint Francis of Assisi, the pope’s 同名, but also the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development2000 Earth Charter.

虽然 Big Bang and evolution are settled issues for this pope, end-of-life issues are likely to be part of his ongoing process of discernment. Stem cell research will also have his attention as the Vatican prepares for its third conference on cell therapy. And there’s no question that the world has its attention on him.

But who will follow Pope Francis as he walks a Catholic path in today’s world? Surely that path will not be catholic enough to accommodate all possible intersections of current science and today’s religious beliefs and practices. Yet it will likely be one guided by careful consideration of how mainstream science 符合更广泛的精神视野。 虽然这位教皇对具体的科学问题上的领导并不适合每一个人,它有望给世界科学与宗教如何能的照明例子 共同进步.

关于作者谈话

HSIA佛罗伦​​萨佛罗伦萨夏,威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校科学史教授。 她的研究兴趣包括科学革命,耶稣会科学,科学与宗教,科学和欧洲扩张在早期现代时期。

本文最初发表于 谈话。 阅读 原创文章.

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