这里有四个步骤来任命最高法院大法官

这里有四个步骤来任命最高法院大法官

奥巴马有一些困难的步骤爬上委任司法更换安东宁斯卡利亚。

随着美国最高法院大法官安东宁斯卡利亚的意外死亡本周末, 政治战线 已经制定。 奥巴马总统已经明确表示,他 计划提名 一个继任者。 他的反对同样坚持认为他不应该这么做,但允许选择进行 由下一届总统.

许多共和党人,包括总统候选人和参议员目前马可·鲁比奥和泰德·克鲁斯,已经宣布了他们的意图不采取行动对总统发出他们的任何提名。

“总统可以提名他想要谁,”卢比奥告诉福克斯新闻。 “我们 不就行了前进, period.”

最高法院是在许多治 有争议的问题 this year, including abortion, immigration, affirmative action and voting rights. And because many of the court’s decisions have been decided by a 5-4 vote, typically with the four liberal justices on one side and the five conservative justices on the other, both parties are well aware that replacing Justice Scalia with a more liberal justice will 改变权力平衡 在球场上。

离开斯卡利亚大法官的位子空,直到有新的总统将意味着疑难案件这一术语可以归结为一条领带,沿着均匀的思想路线分裂。 在这种情况下,下级法院的决定将站立,仿佛最高法院从未考虑过他们。 这肯定会损害法院的责任 “说法律是什么”。

那么要怎么做才能让一个名为新义?

步骤1-总统挑

要知道的第一件事是,美国宪法赋予提名为总统的权力。

第二条,节2规定,总统“有权提名,并于取得参议院的意见和同意后,任命...最高法院法官。”

根据法律规定,奥巴马总统可以提名他想取代斯卡利亚大法官任何人。 约会真的是一个三步流程 - 提名(由总统),确认(由参议院),及委任(由总统再次)。

这是什么地方的提名和确认吃不了棘手的。

步骤2-参议院司法委员会

一旦总统已经做出了选择,提名 提到美国参议院。 由于前期19th世纪,这也意味着,提名将首先由参议院,参议院司法委员会内的小组审议。

司法委员会目前有 20成员 - 共和党11 9和民主党 - 并具有 三个步骤 它自己的。

首先,它进行一次听证前调查候选者的背景。

其次,它拥有一个公开听证会,其中被提名人的质疑,可能给予的一切,从她的司法理念,以她的立场对堕胎的证词。

最后,委员会将“报告”的建议,以充分的参议院。 该委员会可以报告具有积极的推荐,负建议或任何建议提名。

If a majority of the committee opposes confirmation of the nominee, it can technically refuse to report the nomination, therefore preventing the full Senate from considering the nominee at all.

This hasn’t happened since 1881, and would deviate from the committee’s “traditional practice.” But that does not mean it is out of the question. The chairman of the committee, Republican Senator Chuck Grassley, has already said that, in his view, the Senate should not act on a Supreme Court nomination before the presidential election in November.

Step 3- The full Senate

Let’s assume that the committee does report the nomination to the full Senate.

There are 100 senators in the United States Senate – two for each state. Currently, the Senate is majority Republican, with 54 senators to the Democrats' 44, with two independents for added flavor.

This is where it gets interesting, because the Senate follows rules so arcane and incomprehensible that otherwise reasonable writers freely refer to them as “

In order to consider the nomination, the Senate has to enter a special “executive session.” This is typically achieved by having the Senate majority leader ask for unanimous consent to have the Senate consider the nomination.

Unfortunately for the president, Republican Senator Mitch McConnell (R-KY), the current majority leader, has issued a statement saying that Justice Scalia’s vacancy should not be filled until after the November election. So McConnell appears unlikely to ask for unanimous consent to consider an Obama nominee.

If unanimous consent cannot be obtained (if it even is sought), the nomination can be considered if someone makes a motion that the Senate do so.

If the motion that the nomination be considered is made during a special “executive” session of the Senate, then the motion itself is debatable and can be blocked by 阻挠议事 – that movie-ready delay tactic in which which a senator recites Shakespeare, 苏斯博士 or recipes for fried oysters until everyone gives up and goes home.

Closing debate on the motion so that the Senate could move on to a vote would require a supermajority of 60 votes – again, unlikely given the current polarization of the Senate.

If the motion is made while the Senate is in its regular “legislative” session, then the nomination will be considered by the full Senate. But because of aforementioned arcane Senate rules, the vote on the nomination could also be blocked by filibuster.

Step 4- The vote

But let’s assume that the nomination does emerge from the Judiciary Committee, makes it to an “up or down” vote and weathers any filibuster attempts.

A vote to confirm then requires a simple majority of the senators present and voting. If all goes well, the secretary of the Senate will transmit the confirmation vote to the president.

The president then can breathe a sigh of relief and sign a commission appointing the person to the Supreme Court.

But I wouldn’t count on it.

The loophole

If the traditional 4-step process fails, there is one additional possibility open to the president.

Article II of the Constitution also says that the president “shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate” and that the appointment can last until the end of the Senate’s next session – in this case, until late 2017.

A recess appointment would mean that the president could simply fill Justice Scalia’s seat temporarily without any input from the Senate.

As it happens, the Senate is currently in recess until February 22. What happens next is anyone’s guess.

作者: 卡伦·莫里森,法学副教授,佐治亚州立大学

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