图片 Thomas Kelley/Unsplash

Australian adults get around one-third of their energy intake from junk foods.

Also known as discretionary foods, these include foods such as biscuits, cakes, sausages, sugar-sweetened drinks and alcohol.

Unhealthy diets are a key reason why almost one in every three adults in Australia is obese. Excess weight also increases risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers.

Our new research, published today in the 国际行为营养与体育活动杂志, has found personalised nutrition advice, compared to usual dietary advice, helped adults to eat less junk food.

What is personalised nutrition?

个性化营养 involves tailoring dietary advice to improve health, based on the characteristics of the individual. So dietary advice could be tailored based on anything from the person’s eating habits and weight to their cholesterol levels and genetics.

The concept of tailored dietary advice isn’t new — dietitians have been giving personalised advice for centuries. What is new is the rise in popularity of new technologies, apps and wearable devices, which allow for detailed monitoring of individual health. Health-care professionals can then use this information to provide personalised advice. A man adjusts his smartwatch. New technologies have fuelled the rise of personalised nutrition. 存在Shutterstock

To understand whether personalised nutrition advice improves dietary habits, we conducted the Food4Me Study.


We recruited 1,607 adult volunteers from across seven European countries into a six-month dietary study.


每周杂志 每天的启示

At the beginning, adults were allocated into either a control group, or one of three personalised nutrition groups.

Usual dietary advice

In the control group adults received usual dietary advice. For example, “eat at least five serves of fruit and vegetables each day”. (In Australia the recommendation is at least seven serves daily.)


To help us understand the best way to personalise dietary advice, the three personalised nutrition groups received tailored dietary advice based on different sets of characteristics. All advice was based on behaviour change strategies, such as swapping discretionary foods for healthier alternatives.

Group 1 received advice based on what they ate.

For example, for someone eating a lot of salty meat products, we told them to reduce their intake of processed meats and pies, and swap salami and bacon for turkey or beef.

Group 2 received advice based on their diet and body measurements.

For example, if someone had high waist circumference and cholesterol levels, and was snacking on biscuits and chocolate, we told them they were carrying too much weight around their middle and had high cholesterol levels so would benefit from snacking on fruit and healthy fats, such as nuts, instead.

Group 3 received advice based on their diet, body measurements and genetic information.

For example, if someone had a genetic risk of high cholesterol, and was eating lots of salty meat products, we told them they have a genetic variation and would benefit from maintaining a healthy intake of saturated fat and normal cholesterol levels. We suggested they swap processed meats, for example burgers and sausages, for lean meats or skinless chicken breast.

So, does personalised nutrition work?

At the beginning and end of the study we asked our volunteers to complete an online questionnaire, which asked them how often they consumed various foods and drinks.

We found participants who received personalised dietary advice reduced their intake of discretionary foods more than participants who received usual dietary advice.

Interestingly, this improvement in diet was seen across all personalised nutrition groups; regardless of whether advice was personalised based on diet, body measurements or genetics, or a combination of these factors.

That said, we did see some evidence that the addition of genetic information (group 3) helped adults to reduce their discretionary food intake more than those who received advice based on their diet and body measurements alone (group 2). An older couple preparing vegetables in the kitchen. We found personalised nutrition advice was associated with healthier eating. 存在Shutterstock

Our findings are consistent with the broader evidence on personalised nutrition.

在最近的 系统评价 we looked at results from 11 personalised nutrition studies conducted across Europe and North America. We found overall, personalised nutrition advice improved dietary habits more than usual dietary advice.

What do these results mean?

Our results show personalised dietary advice can support people to eat less junk food. This should have important implications for how researchers and health-care professionals design healthy eating strategies moving forward.

It’s important to note our sample was made up of volunteers. So they may be more health-conscious and motivated to improve their dietary habits than the general population.

We need research in more diverse population groups, including young males and people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This will be important for understanding whether personalised nutrition advice can benefit everyone.


Lots of commercial offerings for personalised dietary advice are emerging, such as companies that offer genetic testing and provide dietary advice accordingly, but many are not supported by scientific evidence. Health-care professionals, such as dietitians, should remain the first point of call when seeking dietary advice.

Personalised nutrition advice has the potential to improve the diet and health of Australians. But the reasons for unhealthy diets are complex, and include wider social and environmental influences.

So exploring new ways to support people to eat healthier diets is just one potential way to address the burden of unhealthy eating and related ill-health in Australia. 谈话Katherine Livingstone receives funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council. The Food4Me Study was supported by the European Commission under the Food, Agriculture, Fisheries and Biotechnology Theme of the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. Food4Me co-authors are acknowledged for their contribution to the publication.


Katherine Livingstone,NHMRC 新兴领导力研究员和迪肯大学体育活动与营养研究所 (IPAN) 高级研究员


哈佛医学院太极课程指南:12周健康身体,坚强的心,锐利的头脑 - 彼得韦恩。

哈佛医学院太极拳指南:12周健康的身体,强烈的心灵和敏锐的心灵 - 作者:Peter Wayne。来自哈佛医学院的尖端研究支持了太极拳对于心脏,骨骼,神经和肌肉,免疫系统和精神健康有益的长期主张。 长期太极老师兼哈佛医学院研究员Peter M. Wayne博士开发并测试了与本书所包含的简化程序类似的程序,该程序适用于所有年龄段的人,可以在一天几分钟。

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浏览大自然的过道:Wendy和Eric Brown在郊区寻找野生食物的一年。温迪和埃里克·布朗(Eric Brown)作为自力更生和抵御能力承诺的一部分,决定花费一年的时间将野生食物作为饮食的常规组成部分。 通过收集,准备和保存在大多数郊区景观中发现的易于辨认的野生食物的信息,这个独特的,鼓舞人心的指南是任何想通过利用他们家门口的聚宝盆提高家庭粮食安全的人必读的。

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食品公司:参与者指南:工业食品如何使我们病情加重,肥胖和贫穷 - 以及你能做些什么 - 由卡尔韦伯编辑。

食品公司:参与者指南:工业食品如何使我们病情加重,肥胖和贫穷 - 以及你能做些什么我的食物来自哪里,谁来加工? 什么是巨大的农业企业,他们在维持粮食生产和消费现状方面有什么样的利益呢? 我怎样才能经济实惠地喂养我的家庭健康食品? 这本书扩大了电影的主题 食品,INC。 将通过一流的专家和思想家的一系列具有挑战性的文章来回答这些问题。 本书将鼓励那些受到启发的人 这个电影 了解更多的问题,并行动改变世界。

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