乔纳森·卡特勒/弗利克, 创用CC BY-SA

Drones of all sizes are being used by environmental advocates to monitor deforestation, by conservationists to track poachers, and by journalists and activists to document large protests.环保倡导者正在使用各种尺寸的无人机来监测森林砍伐,环保主义者正在使用这种无人机来追踪偷猎者,新闻工作者和活动人士正在使用它们来记录大规模的抗议活动。 As a作为一个 政治社会学家 研究社交活动和无人机的人在我的新书中记录了各种各样的非暴力和亲社会无人机用途:好无人机。” I show that these efforts have the potential to democratize surveillance.我表明,这些努力有可能使监督民主化。

但是当国土安全部将大型固定翼无人机从美墨边境转移到 监督抗议以及城镇尝试使用无人机 测试人发烧,该考虑一下天空中有多少只眼睛以及如何避免不必要的空中监视了。 One way that's within reach of nearly everyone is learning how to simply disappear from view.几乎每个人都可以掌握的一种方法是学习如何简单地从视线中消失。


在过去的十年中,公众对无人机的使用激增-每天都有技术在做的人 有趣的东西。 As drones enter already-crowded airspace, the Federal Aviation Administration is当无人机进入已经拥挤的领空时,联邦航空局 努力应对。 The near future is likely to see even more of these devices in the sky, flown by an ever-growing cast of social, political and economic actors.在不远的将来,越来越多的社会,政治和经济参与者将在空中看到更多此类设备。


关于无人机使用和传播的公众意见仍然存在 在空中,但无人机的迅速使用引发了减少无人机的大量努力。 These responses range from public policies exerting community control over local airspace, to the development of sophisticated jamming equipment and tactics for knocking drones out of the sky.这些响应包括从对社区领空实施社区控制的公共政策,到开发先进的干扰设备和将无人机击落天空的策略。

From startups to major defense contractors, there is a scramble to deny airspace to drones, to hijack drones digitally, to control drones physically and to shoot drones down.从初创企业到大型国防承包商,人们都争先恐后地拒绝领空,以数字方式劫持无人机,以物理方式控制无人机并击落无人机。 Anti-drone measures range from simple blunt force,反无人机措施包括简单的钝力, 10口径shot弹枪,如诗般: 训练有素的鹰.

Many of these anti-drone measures are expensive and complicated.这些反无人机措施很多都是昂贵且复杂的。 Some are illegal.有些是非法的。 The most affordable – and legal – way to avoid drone technology is避免使用无人机技术的最实惠且合法的方法是 .



The first thing you can do to hide from a drone is to take advantage of the natural and built environment.您可以对无人机隐藏的第一件事就是利用自然和建筑环境。 It's possible to wait for bad weather, since smaller devices like those used by local police have a hard time flying in high winds, dense fogs and heavy rains.有可能等待恶劣的天气,因为像当地警察使用的小型设备在强风,浓雾和大雨中很难飞行。


(如何在监视时代对无人机隐藏鬼影的微妙技巧)在世界的某些地区,躲避无人机是生死攸关的问题。 无人机生存指南, CC BY-NC

The second thing you can do is minimize your digital footprints.您可以做的第二件事是最大程度地减少数字足迹。 It's smart to avoid using wireless devices like mobile phones or GPS systems, since they have digital signatures that can reveal your location.避免使用诸如移动电话或GPS系统之类的无线设备是明智的,因为它们具有可以显示您的位置的数字签名。 This is useful for evading drones, but is also important for avoiding other privacy-invading technologies.这对于逃避无人机很有用,但对于避免其他侵犯隐私的技术也很重要。

The third thing you can do is confuse a drone.您可以做的第三件事是使无人机混乱。 Placing mirrors on the ground, standing over broken glass, and wearing elaborate headgear,将镜子放在地上,站在碎玻璃上,并戴着精致的头饰, 机器可读毛毯 or 传感器干扰夹克 会分解并扭曲无人机看到的图像。


Drones equipped with infrared sensors will see right through the mannequin trick, but are confused by tactics that mask the body's temperature.配备红外传感器的无人机将通过人体模型招看,但是被掩盖人体温度的策略所迷惑。 For example, a space blanket will mask significant amounts of the body's heat, as will simply hiding in an area that matches the body's temperature, like a building or sidewalk exhaust vent.例如,一块太空毯会掩盖大量的人体热量,就像会躲在与人体温度相匹配的区域一样,例如建筑物或人行道的排气口。

The fourth, and most practical, thing you can do to protect yourself from drone surveillance is to get a disguise.保护自己免受无人机监视的第四件也是最实际的事情是变相。 The growth of mass surveillance has led to an explosion in creative experiments meant to mask one's identity.大规模监视的增长导致旨在掩盖自己身份的创造性实验的爆炸式增长。 But some of the smartest ideas are decidedly old-school and low-tech.但是,一些最聪明的想法绝对是过时的和低技术的。 Clothing is the first choice, because hats, glasses, masks and scarves go a long way toward scrambling drone-based facial-recognition software.服装是首选,因为帽子,眼镜,口罩和围巾在争夺基于无人机的面部识别软件方面大有帮助。

Your gait is as unique as your fingerprint.步态与指纹一样独特。 As gait-recognition software evolves, it will be important to also mask the key pivot points used in identifying the walker.随着步态识别软件的发展,掩盖用于识别步行者的关键枢轴点也很重要。 It may be that the best response is affecting a limp, using a minor leg brace or wearing extremely loose clothing.最好的应对措施是使用轻微的腿部支撑或穿着非常宽松的衣服来影响a行。

艺术家和科学家们将这些方法进一步发展了, 连帽外套 旨在屏蔽所有者的热量特征并扰乱面部识别软件,以及 眼镜 旨在挫败面部识别系统。


These innovations are alluring, but umbrellas may prove to be the most ubiquitous and robust tactic in this list.这些创新引人入胜,但在该清单中,遮阳伞可能是最普遍且最有效的策略。 They're affordable, easy to carry, hard to see around and can be disposed of in a hurry.它们价格适中,易于携带,难以看见并且可以急忙处理。 Plus you can build a另外,您可以构建一个 高科技一, 如果你想。

It would be nice to live in a world with fewer impositions on privacy, one in which law enforcement did not use small quadcopters and the Department of Homeland Security did not redeploy large Predator drones to surveil protesters.生活在一个没有太多隐私保护的世界中,这是很好的选择。在这个世界中,执法部门不使用小型四轴飞行器,而国土安全部也没有重新部署大型“捕食者”无人机来监视抗议者。 And, for people in some parts of the world, it would be nice not to associate the sound of a drone with impending missile fire.而且,对于世界上某些地区的人们来说,最好不要将无人机的声音与即将到来的导弹射击联系在一起。 But given that those eyes are in the sky, it's good to know how to hide.但是考虑到那些眼睛在天空中,知道如何隐藏是一件好事。


政治社会学副教授Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, University of San Diego.圣地亚哥大学。 He is the author of:他是以下作者的作者: 好无人机:社会运动如何使监视民主化. 谈话麻省理工学院出版社作为The Conversation US的成员提供资金。

本文重新发表 谈话 根据知识共享许可。 阅读 原创文章.





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